Skip to main content


metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from the environment samples. This broad field of microbiology differs from the traditional where the genomic sequencing mainly depent on the clonal culture. here the large microbial groups which are not easy to culture in a lab are studied in their enviromental conditons. This term was used in a publication in 1998 by Jo Handelsman et. al., University of Wisonsin, Department of Plant Pathology. This term is also knows, environmental genomics, ecogenomics, or community genomics.Metagenomic studies of seawater and feces have revealed thousands of previously unknown viruses and bacteria. Marine sediment was found to have millions of previously unknown viruses.The National Institutes of Health is considering a project to sequence all of the microbes of the human body. Currently only 1% of the bodies microbes can be sequenced. A microbe genome is one thousand times shorter than the human genome. However, there are a lot of different microbes that need to be sequenced.

Early environmental gene sequencing cloned specific genes (often the 16S rRNA gene) to produce a profile of diversity in a natural sample. Such work revealed that the vast majority of microbial biodiversity had been missed by cultivation-based methods. Recent studies use "shotgun" Sanger sequencing or massively parallel pyrosequencing to get (mostly) unbiased samples of all genes from all members of sampled communities.

Metagenomics has many applications. Metagenomic knowledge helps us to understand the biological processes that effect human health and agriculture. Metagenomics has been used to find new antibiotics and can be used for other advancements in medicine.

It can also be used to enable superior industrial processes such as the efficient creation of biofuels. Biofuels could help us solve our energy problems related to increasing oil prices and to the environmental impact of fossil fuels.

It is well known that the vast majority of microbes have not been cultivated. Functional metagenomics strategies are being used to explore the interactions between plants and microbes through cultivation-independent study of the microbial communities.


Popular posts from this blog

National Seminar on Biological Sciences, Bahona College, Jorhat, Assam....

Bahona College, Jorhat is organizing a UGC sponsored national seminar on “Research in Biological Sciences for sustainable development by the application of Mathematics and allied branches”  by  the Departments of Botany, Mathematics and Computer Science in collaboration with Assam Science Society, Bahona Branch on 10th and 11th May, 2013Thrust areas: ·Recent research in Biological Sciences for sustainability. · Biophysics and Biochemistry research for sustainability. ·Issues related to global environmental crisis, biodiversity loss and conservation. ·Management of Bioresources. ·Phytochemical and Zoochemical investigations to validate the traditional knowledge. ·Critical needs in agricultural and biofuel production. ·Management of Alien species. ·Biotechnology research for sustainability. ·Mathematics and 21st Century Biology. ·Mathematical modeling ·Fluid mathematics ·Fuzzy mathematics ·Statistics in Biological research. ·Systems Biology ·Computational Biology/Bio Computing.

Influenza A detection by MDCK cell line

The influenza A (IA) virus is the principal cause of the outbreaks of flu. A large number of laboratories participate in the worldwide surveillance of influenza virus activity and contribute to the early recognition of newly emerging epidemic strains. Differentiation between influenza A and B viruses and determination of the subtypes of influenza A virus isolates are the first steps in the characterization of influenza viruses. This analysis is traditionally done by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests with specific antisera raised in ferrets, chickens, or sheep.
The diagnosis of Influenza A is largely clinical. Nevertheless, it is necessary to carry out some form of rapid antigenic diagnosis and the culture of respiratory samples to confirm the etiology of the respiratory disease and to determine the antigenic characteristics of the epidemic strains. Although the “gold standard” isolation technique is inoculation in embryonated hens’ eggs, the technical difficulties involved and …


Center For Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB)

Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) <>

Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP),

Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) Chennai <>

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB)<>

Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT),<>

Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB)<>

Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT),

Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH)<>

Indian Toxicology Research Center (ITRC) <>

National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) Pune <>

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (N…