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Showing posts from February, 2017

Can we actually "build" DNA molecules with a set sequence?

Yes we can. There is whole new branch of biology for this, SYNTHETIC GENOMICS. Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology, that uses aspects of genetic modification on preexisting life forms or artificial gene synthesis to create a new DNA or entire new life forms. Craig venter and his team has created new bacteria with synthetic genome. As a summarized article, read:After 20 Year Quest, Biologists Create Synthetic Bacteria With No Extra Genes


What is Polymorphism ?

In Biology, Polymorphism is the variation within a population. Polymorphism is the occurrence of one or more distinct individual with characteristic difference in phenotype within the members of same species. Polymorphisms occurs due to genetic variation (which may be a result of mutation or random mating) or due to environmental factors (Geographical distribution) Polymorphisms can be detected with Morphological markers (different morphological parameters), DNA markers (RFLP, AFLP, SSR, SNP etc.), biochemical markers (Isozymes).

Human Hair Color - Biochemistry and Genetics

1. Hair is made up of Keratin , but keratin is colorless so what gives our hair the unique color?
2. The answer is Melanin.
3. Melanocyte gland produces two different kinds of melanin. One is "Eumelanin" and other is "Pheomelanin".
4. Eumelanin is responsible for Black and Brown color.
5. Pheomelanin is responsible for Red and Orange color.

So, Which gene controls their concentration in our hair?

1. MC1R - MC1R gene translates into Melanocortin 1 Receptor protein, which controls the production of this two melanin.
2. If MC1R is active in a cell, it stimulates the production of Eumelanin, while if the MC1R gene is blocked or polymorphic, it will stimulates the production of Pheomelanin.

What is the best way to increase good gut bacteria?

As a popular, Probiotics like yogurt can help someone to create a good gut microbiome. Along with this I want to add, there is another Term Known as “PREBIOTIC”. Most of the people are unaware about this term. Prebioticsare substances that induce the growth or activity of microorganisms that contribute to the well-being of their host. Prebiotics by definition are a type of non-digestible fiber compounds which are found in different plants. In simple term” Prebiotics are specific food or like fertilizer to increase the amount of specific bacteria in your gut”. So increase the intake of prebiotics in your diet to increase the good bacteria in your gut. Table Source: Wikipedia.

Which food chain should bacteria include?

Talking about food chain. You can include bacteria to each and every food chain out there. They are the decomposers, they break down the complex organic matter found in the dead bodies of plants and animals. The digested material then provides a food source for other organisms. The decomposing process greatly increases the nutrient-load of an ecosystem which allows for greater biodiversity. There is another concept “ Microbial Loop”. You can connect microorganisms to aquatic and soil ecosystems. The pathway starts with dissolved organic matter (DOM : DOM consists of molecules which were once parts of living organisms such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) which makes its way through various trophic levels via its incorporation into bacterial biomass, and then coupled with the classical food chain. The term microbial loop was coined byFarooq AzamandTom Fenchelet al (1983). The microbial loop is ecologically significant because it is directly involved in nutrient c…