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A bacteria found in the arsenic rich water of a california Mono Lake, subtitutes arsenic for phosphorus in the backbone of its DNA nad other essential cellular components.

Scientist have a common believe that phophorus needed by every organism as phosphate ion palys a crucial role in cell by maintaing the sturcture of DNA and RNA, which carry the genetic instruction for life and is considered an essential for all living cells.

Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate) and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, but poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic disrupts metabolic pathways because chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.


The microorganism disvovered from monolake is GFAJ-1 is a common bacteria of the family Gammaproteobacteria. The research team discovering this bacteria  included scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and the Stanford Synchroton Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, Calif. And the team was conducted by NASA’s astrobiology department.

This bacteria questioned every possible theories of life oigin, biochemistry of life, and the genetic informations etc.


picture – Mono lake , California.


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